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Snow Leopard

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Snow Leopard Video

These spotted leopards live in the mountains across a vast range of Asia. They are insulated by thick hair—in shades of gray or creamy yellow and covered with grayish black spots—and their wide, fur-covered feet act as natural snowshoes.

Snow leopards have powerful legs and are tremendous jumpers, able to leap as far as 50 feet. These big cats use their long tails for balance and as blankets to cover sensitive body parts against the severe mountain chill.

They are shy and reclusive , and rarely seen in the wild. Snow leopards can be found throughout high mountain ranges, including the Himalayas and the southern Siberian mountains in Russia.

They can also be found in the Tibetan Plateau and across a range that stretches from China to the mountains of Central Asia.

They prefer steep, rugged terrain with rocky outcrops where prey can be hard to come by. Snow leopards prey upon the blue sheep bharal of Tibet and the Himalayas, as well as the mountain ibex found over most of the rest of their range.

Though these powerful predators can kill animals three times their weight , they also eat smaller fare, such as marmots, hares, and game birds.

One Indian snow leopard, protected and observed in a national park, is reported to have consumed five blue sheep, nine Tibetan woolly hares, 25 marmots, five domestic goats, one domestic sheep, and 15 birds in a single year.

The expansion of human settlement, especially livestock grazing, has led to increased conflict. Herders sometimes kill snow leopards to prevent or retaliate against predation of their domestic animals.

Males moved between 0. Like other cats, snow leopards use scent marks to indicate their territories and common travel routes. These are most commonly produced by scraping the ground with the hind feet before depositing urine or scat , but they also spray urine onto sheltered patches of rock.

The snow leopard is a carnivore and actively hunts its prey. It is an opportunistic hunter and also eats carrion. Its preferred wild prey species are Himalayan blue sheep Pseudois nayaur , Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus , argali Ovis ammon , markhor Capra falconeri and wild goat C.

It also preys on domestic livestock. The diet of the snow leopard varies across its range and with the time of year, and depends on prey availability.

In the Himalayas , it preys mostly on Himalayan blue sheep and Siberian ibex Capra sibirica. Snow leopards prefer to ambush prey from above, using broken terrain to conceal their approach.

They kill with a bite to the neck, and may drag the prey to a safe location before feeding. They consume all edible parts of the carcass, and can survive on a single Himalayan blue sheep for two weeks before hunting again.

Annual prey needs appears to be 20—30 adult blue sheep. The snow leopard is capable of killing most animals in its range, with the probable exception of the adult male yak.

It also eats a significant amount of vegetation, including grass and twigs. Where snow leopards prey on domestic livestock , they are subject to conflict with humans.

The snow leopard has not been reported to attack humans, and appears to be the least aggressive to humans of all big cats.

As a result, they are easily driven away from livestock; they readily abandon their kills when threatened, and may not even defend themselves when attacked.

Snow leopards become sexually mature at two to three years, and normally live for 15—18 years in the wild. In captivity they can live for up to 25 years.

Oestrus typically lasts from five to eight days, and males tend not to seek out another partner after mating, probably because the short mating season does not allow sufficient time.

Paired snow leopards mate in the usual felid posture , from 12 to 36 times a day. They are unusual among large cats in that they have a well-defined birth peak.

They usually mate in late winter, marked by a noticeable increase in marking and calling. Females have a gestation period of 90— days, so the cubs are born between April and June.

Generation length of the snow leopard is eight years. The mother gives birth in a rocky den or crevice lined with fur shed from her underside.

Litter sizes vary from one to five cubs , but the average is 2. Their eyes open at around seven days, and the cubs can walk at five weeks and are fully weaned by 10 weeks.

The cubs leave the den when they are around two to four months of age, but remain with their mother until they become independent after around 18—22 months.

Once independent, they disperse over considerable distances, even crossing wide expanses of flat terrain to seek out new hunting grounds.

This likely helps reduce the inbreeding that would otherwise be common in their relatively isolated environments. The major threat to snow leopard populations is poaching and illegal trade of skins and body parts.

In China, to animals are poached every year, in Mongolia between 34 and 53, in Pakistan between 23 and 53, in India from 21 to 45, and in Tajikistan 20 to Poaching is linked to prey declines and livestock depredation.

Numerous agencies are working to conserve the snow leopard and its threatened mountain ecosystems. These groups and various national governments from the snow leopard's range, nonprofits, and donors from around the world worked together at the 10th International Snow Leopard Conference in Beijing.

Their focus on research, community programs in snow leopard regions, and education programs are aimed at understanding the cat's needs, as well as the needs of the villagers and herder communities juxtaposed with the snow leopards' habitats.

The meeting was held in Bishkek, the capital of the Kyrgyz Republic, and all countries agreed that the snow leopard and the high mountain habitat it lives in need trans-boundary support to ensure a viable future for snow leopard populations, as well as to safeguard their fragile environment.

The GSLEP is a joint initiative of range country governments, international agencies, civil society, and the private sector.

Its goal is to secure the long-term survival of the snow leopard in its natural ecosystem. The goal of the GSLEP is for the 12 snow leopard range countries, with support from conservation agencies, NGOs and others to work together to identify and secure at least 20 healthy populations of snow leopards across the cat's range by , or "20 by ".

Many of these populations will cross international boundaries. The three criteria that will secure healthy populations of snow leopards are populations that represent at least breeding age snow leopards, contain adequate and secure prey populations and have connectivity to other snow leopard populations.

This is an interim goal for the years through to During the coming years, agreement will be reached on the steps needed to achieve the ultimate goal of ensuring that healthy snow leopard populations remain the icon of the mountains of Asia for generations to come.

To help spread the word amongst the people, government authorities, and conservation groups in each range country, was designated the International Year of the Snow Leopard as part of the GSLEPP's work.

All range-country governments, nongovernmental and inter-governmental organizations, local communities, and various private sector businesses pledged to take the year as an opportunity to further work towards conservation of snow leopards and their high-mountain ecosystems.

In , there were approximately snow leopards in zoos around the world. Much progress has been made in securing the survival of the snow leopard, with them being successfully bred in captivity.

Females usually give birth to two to three cubs in a litter, but can give birth to up to seven in some cases.

Snow leopard attacks on humans are rare; only two instances are known. On July 12, , in Maloalmaatinsk gorge near Almaty , a rabid snow leopard attacked two men during the day and inflicted serious injuries on both.

In the second case, not far from Almaty, an old, toothless, emaciated snow leopard unsuccessfully attacked a passerby in winter; it was captured and carried to a local village.

A Natural World episode, "Snow Leopard — Beyond the Myth", interviewed a couple with a goat farm in Pakistan; the woman was bowled over by a snow leopard escaping an enclosure where it had been feeding on the livestock, but she was not attacked by the cat, despite fainting and being helpless.

The film crew went to some lengths to demonstrate that the cat was primarily hunting wild prey and was often ranging far outside the area, as they hoped to prevent local farmers from shooting it.

Nevertheless, they also found evidence of other sightings of the cats around nearby human settlements, and of repeated attacks on livestock some of them unsuccessful.

Snow leopards have symbolic meaning for Turkic peoples of Central Asia, where the animal is known as irbis or bars , so it is widely used in heraldry and as an emblem.

The snow leopard in heraldry is sometimes known in English as the ounce. A snow leopard is found on the official seal of the city of Almaty , Kazakhstan, and the former 10, Kazakhstani tenge banknote also featured one on the reverse.

A mythical winged Aq Bars is found in the national coat of arms of Tatarstan , the seal of the city of Samarqand , Uzbekistan , and also with a crown the old coat of arms of the Kazakh capital, Nur-Sultan.

In Kyrgyzstan , it has been used in highly stylized form in the modern emblem of the capital, Bishkek , and the same art has been integrated into the badge of the Kyrgyzstan Girl Scouts Association.

The Snow Leopard award , given to Soviet mountaineers who scaled all five of the Soviet Union 's 7,meter peaks, is named after the animal, but does not depict one.

The snow leopard is the state animal of Himachal Pradesh. It is also depicted on the patch of the Ladakh Police.

Coat of arms of Shushensky District , Krasnoyarsk Krai. Documentary footage of the snow leopard is scarce.

While such coverage would not be remarkable with regard to common species, wildlife video of the snow leopard is difficult to obtain due to the animal's rarity and the human inaccessibility to much of its natural habitat.

The series took some of the first video of snow leopards in the wild, and also featured a snow leopard hunting a markhor.

A snow leopard named Dawa along with her cubs is one of the focal points of the Disneynature film Born in China.

In Peter Matthiessen 's travelogue The Snow Leopard , he recounts his two-month search with naturalist George Schaller for snow leopards in Nepal.

Tai Lung, the main antagonist of the film Kung Fu Panda , is an anthropomorphized snow leopard. Chak'ku, a snow leopard, is one the main characters in the Pakistani animated film Allahyar and the Legend of Markhor.

It aims to shed light on the preservation and poaching of snow leopards. The main characters apart from Chak'ku are a markhor named Mehru and a chukar partridge named Hero.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Snow Leopard. This article is about the cat. For other uses, see Snow Leopard disambiguation.

Conservation status. Schreber , Snow leopard with a marmot in Kyrgyzstan. Eating at Jardin des Plantes , Paris. Shynghyz, the oldest known snow leopard aged 26 , at Tama Zoo , Tokyo , Japan.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Snow leopard on the reverse of the old 10,Kazakhstani tenge banknote.

Cat News. In Wilson, D. M eds. Johns Hopkins University Press. Bibcode : Sci Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.

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In Freeman, H. India: International Snow Leopard Trust. London: University of London. Snow Leopard Trust. Retrieved 25 March Patterson-Kane Applied Animal Behaviour Science.

Nature Conservation 5 : 87— Fading footprints; the killing and trade of snow leopards PDF. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on Retrieved 27 June Richmond Times-Dispatch.

Retrieved 2 September Wild cats: Status survey and conservation action plan. Retrieved 21 March Natural World. Series Episode 1. BBC Two.

Retrieved 21 April BBC The News International. Panthera uncia category. Big cats on the Indian subcontinent.

Asiatic lion Panthera leo leo Bengal tiger P. Asiatic cheetah Acinonyx jubatus venaticus. Extant Carnivora species.

Suborder Feliformia. African palm civet N. Marsh mongoose A. Bushy-tailed mongoose B. Alexander's kusimanse C. Yellow mongoose C.

Pousargues's mongoose D. Angolan slender mongoose G. Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H. Short-tailed mongoose H. White-tailed mongoose I.

Liberian mongoose L. Gambian mongoose M. Selous' mongoose P. Meller's mongoose R. Meerkat S. Spotted hyena C. Brown hyena H.

Aardwolf P. Family Felidae. Cheetah A. Caracal C. Bay cat C.

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